PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION
Compiled By S.Prabhakaran BSc M.L.
1)It is one of the core principles.Emphasized by all the classical thinkers.In 1900 while Weber identified it with bureaucracy, Fayol included it in formal organization. Fayol referred it as ‘scalar chain’. Urwick, Mooney, and Reiley and called it ‘scalar process’..It is derieved from Greek term for ruling structure of religious organizations. –
2) Meaning: It means control of higher over the lower – pyramidical organisation – wherein ‘scalar chain’ – means the grading of duties according to degree of authority..Scalar is derieved from the word scale.It may expand vertically if positions are increased( addition of Top, Middle level management and supervidion.) and horizontally if functions are added.
L.D.White: - Universal application of superior-subordinate relationship.
Mooney: It is universal phenomenon
Urwick: Every organization must have a scalar chain just as every house must have its drain
Millet: - Three principles – gearing of different individuals.
(i) Through proper channel
(ii) authority and responsibility to be equaled
(iii) Unity of command.
Gladden: Both in simple and complex division of labour means Hierarchy
Paul Appleby: It is means by which resources are appropriated, personnel selected and assigned duties.
L.J. Peter: Here every employee tends to raise above his level of incompetence.
4) Characteristics: (i) Grades system of control in which personnel are distinguishable on the basis of position (ii) Authority is divided into units and subunits (iii) Pyramidical because fewer control the larger number resulting gradual reduction of personnel at the top level v) Entire task segregated into identifiable authority called Departments which remain closed to outside systems but converge finally to the Chief Executive’s authority. v) Flow of authority command and control are from top to bottom and responsibility and obedience are from bottom to top. vi) Entire system works on the principle of through proper Channel”
b) basic Features:
i) Order from Higher to lower and not vice versa. ii) No skipping on intermediate bu higher or lower and vice versa iii) Authority and responsibility commensurative with each other iv) Filter and Funnel system v) Improves efficiency of Executive branch in Admiistrative behaviour.
5) Functional Effectiveness:
(i) proper combination of authority and responsibility: Pyramidical blocks balance it as authority without responsibility is dangerous and responsibility with authority is meaningless.
(ii) Coherent and Predictable system of Administration: Superior subordinate relationship leads to it. Responsibilities are fixed and there will be no shortcut.
(iii) Weber favoured it as it ensured departmentalization, efficiency and had provision of appeal. But R.K. Merton and Selznick exposed dysfunctional aspects.
Negative Characteristics: 1)Unequal distribution of authority- most at high and vacumn at lower level. Hence subordinate denied innovative thinking
ii) Peter principle:Due to gradation and authority, it gives priority to rank over talents.This was peter principle given by J.Peter and Raymond Hall”managers tend to be promoted to the level of incompetence”
iii) Nigro: Organisaion is superior than structure and there are also social systems within an organization.
6)Advantages: (i) Instrument of organizational integration- Mooney called it as universal because it integrate various broken up parts of organization due to division of work into one unit. It is the thread by which separate parts are sewen together. (ii) Channel of communication through chain of command
(iii) Responsibility at each level
(iv) Avoiding Short circuiting by ensuring proper route
(v) congestion prevention at top level
(vi) Decentralization of decision-making
(vii) facilitates delegation (viii) Procedures simplified
(ix) coordination (x) discipline
7) Disadvantages:-(i) Delay it is primary disadvantage.(ii) Discourages lower level in work , innovation descision making. (iii) Rigidity (iv) tall organization (v) Superior – subordinate relationship(vi) Creation of Caste system
8) Alternatives or Remedies:
(i) Gangplank It is communication channel with an employee of the same level. It is horizontal communication. It is called level jumping and he can communicate with the permission of superior.
b) By pass method: File Jumping Experiment in Secretariat- Officers skipped may be informed of the action taken or propsed -after orbefore.
(ii) Greater decentralization if Fan like Organisations: Applicable to countries with rapidly advancing towards higher technology . his is structure created within formal hierarchy through greater decentralization and division of authority.Example – construction of Dam. This structure presents a fan like appearance but it would not work out in general routine administration.
9) Efficiency and Hierarchy: Structuralists focused on efficiency but behavioralists insisted on non structural factors such as organization environment etc,. From 1950 various studies were conducted on efficiency in Hiearchy and following results were found.
(i) 1950- James worthy in Sears – Roebuck Co:Organisations which are flat or less hiearchial tend to encourage managerical development and employee’s morale.
(ii) 1962- Meltzer and Jay Slater: While working in an organization with 700 Scientists, hiearachy was insignificant as job satisfaction was dependent upon development of technical ability.
iii) 1964- Expectancy Model- Porter and Lawler: Useful in organizations with 500 or more but if below 5000, less structure enabled norale and efficiency.smaller organizations the efficiency is dependent on reward to work.
iv) 1967- Clarzo and Yanouzas: Hiearchy work best if employees have learnt work properly.
v) 1968- Revans: Strike, absentism, accidents more in tall hierarchies. Flat or medium organizations worked best.
10) Indian Context: Manabi majumdarin “ Hieararchy and Decision making in Organisation talked of Case Study made under IIPa about File system in West Bengal and exposed how routine decisions taken at botton simply goes to higher without any contribution.
Employee should receive orders from superior only – single boss – mono-command. the principle has two faces 9i0 A single determinate person to issue order (ii) The order should not be conflicting to confuse them. Normally followed in Military.
(i)Fayol – employee should receive orders from one superior only.
(ii)Pfinner and Presthus: Every member should report to one and only one leader.
(iii) Gullick: The significance of the principle is effective coordination.
iv) Willoughy: it correlates several operational into an highly integrated unit.
4) Advantages: I) Absence of conflict ii) effective supervision iii) clear fixation of responsibility. ivI consistent with scalar principle v)) Effective control vi) leads to effective communication vii) ensures accountability.
3) Argument for: - Henry Fayol – strong advocate – he said if it is violated, then there will be jeopardy, Gullick and Urwick also supported at it – a man cannot serve two masters and administrative units in the government headed by single administration.
b) Fayol said following factors result in dual command (i) Dviding up authority between two members ii) Imperfect demarcation of Departments (iii) Constant linking up between departments and badly defines duties
(i)Secklet-Hudson – Millet – Herbert Simon – etc. were against it. Seckler-Hudson talks about one person has to receive four orders- policy order personnel, budget, supplies and equipments.Hence he said” One single bos is seldom found in modern organizations. Hence he advocated multiplicity of command.
(ii) Millet Advocate ‘Dual supervision – technical and administrative.
(iii) simon opposed it in proverbs of Administration and said it was introduced under the pretext of enhancing orgaisational efficiency.
5) Modern organization Following have undermined the importance of concept.
1. Adoption of plural headed bodies like ‘boards’ and ‘commissions’
2. Increase of specialists 3) Accounting and Technical Departments.
6) Clear picture can be understood from community Development Programmes in Panchayats at Block level and now under Collector.
7) Integration Versus Disintegration: Constittution integrates various uits uder one single Executive head. But Acts and Executive orders disintegrate them through delegation. But India has more integrated form but America has more disintegrated form with seperation of powers, checks and balances and IRC
8) Area administration under district Administration and Functional Administration of specialists.
SPAN OF CONTROL
Number of subordinates or the units of work that an officer can personally direct, control and supervise also known as “Span of Supervision” or Span of Management.It was termed as Span of Attention by Gracuinas. Span is the length between the thumb and the little finger.Symbolically it refers to one’s hold over something.
2)Views on Limitation
1. Hamilton 3 to 4 in his Soul and Body of an Army. 2.Graicunus 5 to 6
3. Urwick 5 to 6 at Higher 8 to 12 on lower 4. Haldane 10 to 12
3) Gullick identified three factors which determine it (i) Function-technical less span- Time and Space.
4) Factors Determining.
a) Function - more when the work is easy, routine, mechanical, and homogenous difficult if opposite.
b) Time: Age of the organisation – more in old organization
c) Space – Work spot – if under the same roof more. Distinction between “Direct supervision” and access made by Urwick.
d) Personality. It is competence of supervisor as well as supervised. More if a supervisor is intelligent energetic and tactful – If subordinate are trained and experienced
e) following also are relevant factors.
1.Delegation of authority
2. Tradition and environments of the organisation
3. Techniques of supervision.
5) The following factors have changed the idea in the modern times
Automation and Mechanization in Administration (ii) MIS including computers. (iii) Increasing number and role of the specialists.They are experts and do not require general control (ii) They act as advisors as staff and near to top iii) They dislike vertical relationship.(iv0 They consider each individual has got his own right.Hence presently the span has increased in general and virtually no for specialists.
6) Criticism: However Mason Haire in his Book Modern organization theory 1959 called the principles as just plain silly- Woodward-increasingly complex phenomenon.
7) Graicunas Formula:Relationships in Organisations-1933
(i) Direct single relationship- increases by the same number if added
)ii) Direct Group Relationship-Increases to 9, 27 etc,.
(iii) Cross Relationship- Increases to six.
8) Report on Committee on Administration 1972 has identified larger span in 7 areas
a) Qualities of superior (ii) Subordinate (iii) nature of work (iv) Same roof (v) Effective communication (vi) Well planned work (vii) Utilising staff assistance.
Compiled By: S.Prabhakaran B.Sc M.L.
Authority signifies hold over knowledge, skill or position. First two are expert. The role of authority is like soul to the body. Administrators do not actually perform duty directly but they get things done. The right to get things done is called authority. Authority is legal or rightful power, a right to command or to act. In formal organization it is vested with job position and not to the person. Hence it is a bureaucratic concept. Organisations where authority and responsibility are clearly defined are good and less corrupt and hence termed as: Two Pillars on which organization is sustained.
(a) Fayol: It is right to give orders and power to exact obedience.
(b) Theo Haimann: Rightful legal power to ask a subordinate to do and if not done to take action.
(c)Simon: Superior- subordinate relationships.It is power to make decisions.
(d)Allen: Sums of powers and rights to make possible the performance.
(e)Mooney and Reiley called it as supreme coordinating power that provides legitimacy to the organizational structure.
(f) Koont and O Donnell: Key to management job.
(a)Existence of right (b) legitimate (c) exercised by making decisions and to carry out(d) to control the negative aspects of behaviour (e) It is also determined by the personality factors of the possessor.
4. Power and Authority: Authority is institutionalized right of a superior to command and compel his subordinate to perform a certain act. Power is ability of a person to influence another person to perform an act. Power is competent to do an act and authority right to order action by others. Examples of P.M. and Mahatma. Authority is right to command but power is capacity to command.
(ii) Power is ability to make things happen- Follet
(b) Power in democratic society requires control and greater the power greater should be the control—L.D. White
c) Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely- Lord Acton
d) Pfinner and Sherwood:Power is Capacity to secure domination over one’s values and authority is capacity to command
5.Sources of Authority:
i)Formal or positional authority theory: Constitution- power being transmitted from institution to administrator.Gullick, Urwick, Mooney, Weber supported it.
ii)Acceptance theory: Given by Chester Bernard as Zone of indifference.A person will comply or obey if it has following (i) Intelligibility (ii) Consistency (iii) Compatibility (iv) Feasibility Simon called it Zone of Acceptance-if stressed disobedience will follow.
iii)Competent Theory: It is generated by personal qualities of technical competence.
6. Types: (i) Line –direct contact through related chain (ii) Staff: Merely advisory (iii) Functional- Midway between two- putting staff specialists in top position and giving him limited powers.
(b) Etzioni – Coercive authority 2. Normative authority 3.Utilitarian Authority also known as reward authority. Also mention about Weber .
7. Functions or Uses : Herbert Simon: (i) It enforces responsibility of the individual to those who wield authority (ii) It secures expertise in decision making (iii) It permits centralization of decision making and coordinating of activity.
8. There are three sources of authority.Legal 2. Traditional 3. Delegation. Max Weber also pointed it as legal, charismatic and rational.
9. Ideas of Follet. She profounded the theory of “law of the situation”- one should not give orders but both should agree to take orders from the situation. Power is ability to make things- power over and powerwith.
10. According to Millet, authority has to discharge functions in four areas.
1. Programme authority 2. Organisational Authority 3. Budgetary authority 4. Personnel authority. In Bureau type there is single authority.
Etzioni – Coercive authority 2. Normative authority 3.Utilitarian Authority also known as reward authority.
12. Why people accept authority?
(i)Habitually conditioned (ii) Get rewards for acceptance (iii) Fear punishments if not obeyed (iv) it takes away their accountability (v) Believe that authority is on superior knowledge and competence
13.Limits of Authority : (1) Codes laws 2) social, ethical and political limitations (3)Only exercise functions within his jurisdiction (4) Collective bargaining (5) Biological constraints.
14)Responsibility.Natural and legal consequence of Authority.
It is obligation to perform assigned duties. It denotes an obligation of an individual to carry out his duties. It is different from authority.
(a) Authority can be delegated wherein responsibility cannot be delegated. (b) Further authority flows downwards while the other is to superiors.(c) Authority has longer life and responsibility is shorter
15.Types (i) Operating responsibility which can be delegated (ii) and ultimate responsibility which cannot be delegated. According to Fayol both authority and responsibility are inter related in administrative process, responsibility is of three kinds (1) Political responsibility 2. Institutional responsibility 3. Professional responsibility or ethical responsibility.
16) Authority and Responsibility: Complimentary and supplementary (ii) Two sides of a coin (iii) Interdependent . Hence following conclusions can be arrived at.i)Both should be coequal ii) No authority to be used without responsibility (Terry) iii) Authority signifies sanction against subordinate but responsibility limits frequent use and it regulates authority to a certain extent. Principle of Correspondence
17)Principle of Correspondence (Urwick) No authority without responsibility and vice versa and they are interdependent, coterminous and coequal..
18) Modern Trend-Participation: Now it is felt that there is no use and no belief in authority but teamwork is stressed. It can be achieved through participation.
(b) Benefits : 1) Personal commitment (ii) Free flow of information (iii) No need for individual control (iv) Mutual respect and trust (v) Stronger Motivation (vi) High degree of confidence (vii) Impersonal process
Compiled By S.Prabhakaran B.Sc M.L.
It is an essential part and essence of administration and first principle of organization Mooney.. First principle means it expresses organization in toto- nothing less. It means all principles are contained under coordination. According to him it has both positive and negative. It brings cooperation, teamwork, remove organizational conflicts, bring personnel closer which are positive. It removes conflicts, inconsistencies, and friction, overlapping and working at cross-purposes which are negative.POSDCORB, Fayl have also stressed it.
2. Meaning : It is the process of bringing about unity and harmony of functioning among the diverse elements and sub systems of an organization.
(i)Mooney: Orderly arrangement of group effort in pursuit of common purpose
(ii) Tead: Smooth interplay functions. However organizational islands are dangerous.
(iii)McFarland: Executive develops an orderly pattern and secures unity of action.
(iv) Newman: Orderly synchronization of efforts
(v)White: Causing disjunct elements to concentrate on complex of forces
(vi) Charlesworth: Orderly arrangement of group effort.
(vii) Terry: Adjustment of the parts of each other and of the movement and operation of parts
(1) Administrative activity (2) It calls for conscious and deliberate effort on administrators at all levels (3) Orderly arrangement of group efforts. (4) To secure unity of action towards common objective (5) it is continuous or ongoing process (6) it is a systems concept as regards organization as system of cooperative efforts.
5. Distinction between cooperation: Cooperation denotes the collective efforts by the persons working in the organization voluntarily for accomplishing a particular purpose. It is willingness to help each other. Coordination is more than it as it made by executive to achieve the common purpose of goals of organization.
Internal and External – Internal coordination with individual activities of persons which is also known as functional. External coordination is co-ordination with other organization. It is structural.
(ii)Horizontal and Perpendicular or Vertical: Vertical when Head coordinate with subordinates and it is horizontal or sideways..
(iii)Procedural and substantive. –It is specification of organization itself that is generalized description of the behaviours; substantive is concerned with content of the organizational activities.
1) Avoid conflicts and duplication – ensures economy 2. Curtail employees attachment for too much significance to their own work. 3. Prevent empire-building 4. Check the narrow perspective of specialists and meet the requirement of organization.5. Chanelisation of group efforts (6) Unity in diversity (7) Harmonisation of goals (8) Congruency of flows
1. Planning 2. Organisational devices 3. Standardization of procedures 4. Development of institutional spirit among the employees 5. Consultations 6. Organizational hierarchy 7. Centralized – house keeping and verbal and written communication. Further there are informal means like personal contacts, dinners, cocktail parties, party system etc.,
1) M.P. Follet’s 4 principles given under Dynamic Administration 1941
2. According to Gulick organization and dominance of an idea are to primary ways for achieving co-ordination.
3. According to Thompson there are three kinds of inter dependencies, Pooled inter dependencies – various fairly autonomous units
2. Sequential interdependence inter dependence output /input 3. Reciprocal inter dependence.
Harlan Cleveland in his “tension theory” suggests deliberate planning to create conflicts.
10) Essential factors of organization:
a) Graves: (i) Familiarity with work (ii) Informal acquaintance (iii) Physical proximity (iv) Specific Objective (v) Desirability of limited number of participants.
b) Elbourne: 1) personnel ii) Committes and Conferences iii) Instructions iv) Reports and returns v) training vi) Policy .Cooperation is the consequence of coordination.
c) Mac Farland: a) Clarifing authority and Responsibility: Reduce overlapping and duplication
b) Checking and Observation: Factual activity and desired activity
c) Facilitating effective communication: Use of committees and Dgroup decision making d) Coordination through leadership
11 Limits or Hindrance :1. Uncertainty of the future behaviour of individual 2. Lack of technical knowledge 3. Lack of administrative skills 4. The vast number of variables involved 5.Lack of proper methods for developing programmes. 6. Enormous growth in size 7. Poor planning 8. Lack of leadership quality among the superiors. 9. Size of the organization- smaller are well coordinated. 10) Unclear policies 11) political Interference 12) Distance from headquarter 13) Big Budget.
12) Various Coordinating Agencies in India: Cabinet Secretariat, Prime Minister’s office, Central Secretariat, Planning Commission and NDC, Inter Departmental Committes. Regional Councils, Staff Agencies like O& M , Central Purchasing Agency etc,.
13) Coordination and Development Administration: Failure of First plan due to lack of coordination (ii) Review Committee Report 1985 suggested improvement in both vertical and horizontal coordination (iii) Seventh Plan created DRDA as a coordinating Agency (iv) Eighth plan made a major change and enabled people’s participation. It went a step ahead and suggested and “Integrated Area development Approach.”
(b)Eight Plan realized need for the following requirements in coordination
(i) Involved of beneficiaries (ii) Involvement of voluntary agencies (iii) Supervision by local bodies (iv) Flexibility at the local level (v)Proper training (vi) Monitoring (vii) Improved delivery systems.
CENTRALISATION AND DECENTRALISATION
Prepared By S.Prabhakaran B.Sc M.L.
These concepts are used to denote the Administrative or Management authority within an organization. Centralisation is concentration of authority in one place while the other is greater dispersion of authority. Centralisation incline towards power and domination; the other inclines towards competition and self-determination. Centralisation is also overload apex of the pyramid;
(a) White: Transfer of authority from lower to higher level is Centralisation.
(b) Fayol: Everything which increase important of sub-ordinates is Decentralisation.
(c) Allen: It is systematic and consistent reservation of authority at Centre
(i) Reservation of decision-making power like planning, coordinating, control at top level. (ii) Reservation of operating authority with middle level.
(iii)Operations at lower level
4) Reasons for Occurrence: Factors conducive to Centralisation
(a) Personality Factors: I) lack of confidence over subordinate (ii) Lack of skill of subordinate (iii) Insecure personality of the Chief Executive
(b) Political Factors: (i) colonial legacy (ii) Nation’s development (iii) Urban Bias (iv) Defence activities
© Economic Factors: I) Big Budget (ii) Foreign Aid (iii) Control over social security spending.
However, it will be useful in smaller organizations only – In large organisations it cannot be used – Ford Motors Company experiment. Further Brown Low Committee 1937 and Hoover Commission 1949 have suggested centralization
5.Advantages of Centralisation
(i) Uniformity in functioning (ii) Clarity about source of decisions
(iii) Effectiveness of top administration (iv) Broader perspectives
(v) Benefits of Natural leadership
6.Limitations or Disadvantageous
(i) Middle and lower levels are without authority. (ii) Abuse of power.
(iii) Heavy workload. (iv) Rigid Bureaucratic structure
(v) Weak communication system (vi) Impediment to organizational growth
7) Indian Context:Centralised Planning, Defence, and Development aspects require centralization and political demand and democratic participation of people indicate decentralization.Community Development Programme and committee of Albert Mayer thrusted paranoid chief executive imposing enforcement over unwilling subordinates.
1) It has five aspects (i) Broader powers to parts and only essential to Head (Administrative) (ii) Large areas of discretion to par and important question to apex (Administrative ) (iii) Much power to elective bodies (Political) (iv) Freedom to field units (Geographical) (v) Functional autonomy to specialists(Functional)
Greater decision at top-Falser
Responsibility at top
Hqrs issue orders
Hqrs supply leadership
Lower Personnel have no initiative
4.Types of Decentralisation
(i) Political decentralization – federal – provinces – municipal -
(ii)Territorial decentralization: Districts, Taluks etc
(iii) Functional decentralization: Certain powers in the specialized units are given – UGC, Central Social Welfare Board etc.
(iv) Horizontal and Vertical: (i) and (ii) are vertical and (iii) horizontal
II) Human Development Report 1993 recognised following 3 types of vertical decentralization.
(a) Deconcentration: First stage- simply passing some duties as chief is overloaded.
(b) Delegation: Specific task assigned for accomplishment with powers defined clearly.
© Devolution: It is complete decentralization.
Hence it concluded that most of the third world countries have adopted deconcentration and hence have not achieved results which was termed as Fesler as (Illusory Decentralisation” . Those who have adopted delegation and devolution have produced good results.
5.Approaches According to James W. Fesler there are 4 approaches.
(i)Doctrinal approach – It is an end and not means
(ii)Political approach (iii) Administrative Approach (iv)Dual approach
6.Merits of Decentralisation
(i) Relieves higher executives (ii) Motivate subordinates
(iii) Increases effectiveness of big organizations (iv) Quick decisions
(v) Executive development (vi) Efficient supervision and control
(vii) Reduces strain on organization communication system(viii) Accountability possible (ix) Reduces policy implementation expenditure x) Modern context: Right to Information
(i) Chances of abuse of autonomy(ii) Difficulty in co-ordination
(iii) Expensive (iv) Lack of uniformity.
8.Factors determining Decentralisation
1.Larger and fast growing enterprises.
(ii) Geographically spread over greater degree of uncertainty, complexity in their external environment. (iii) Well structured organization (iv) Greater stability of manpower(v)Greater absence of emergency situations. (vi)Greater faith over the sub-ordinates ability.
9.Decentralisation is greater if (i)Greater number of decisions made at lower level(ii) Important decisions made at lower level.
(iii)More functions made at lower level.
10) Factors which prevented decentralization in India: I) British Legacy (ii) nehry and Constituent assembly felt it was not ripe (iii) Centralised Planning (iv) Urban Bureaucracy
11) Factors governing Centralisation or Decentralisation
(i) Factor of responsibility: Acts as deterrent to decentralisation
(ii) Administrative Factors: Long age, stable policyand incompetence of field personnel favour centralization.Opposite favour decentralization
(iii) Functional Factors: Limited and nontechnical centralized and vice versa
(iv) External; political, people, etc,.
12) Conclusion: The difference between them is only of degree and not of kind for no organization can be completely centralized as it would overload the Chief and completely decentralized as it would lead to anarchy.It relates to the point where the balance between two should be struck.
Compiled By: S.Prabhakaran B.Sc M.L.
It is to grant or confer authority by one executive to subordinate on selective basis for the purpose of accomplishing the assigned tasks. The existence of an organization depends on delegation of authority. It doesn’t relieve the authority of his overall responsibility. Delegation and decentralization though different or related concepts. In simple terms it is the temporary transfer of general routine work with less importance to the lower to relieve the higher from heavy work.
a) Mooney: Conferring authority from Higher to lower.
b) Terry: From one executive unit to another.
c) Millet: confer discretionary powers upon others by some one. To sum up it is grant of authority by a superior to a subordinate for the attainment of specific assignment.
(d) Terry compares it with imparting knowledge. . Delegated power can be taken back
(e) M.P. Follet considered it as myth of organization. She believed that authority belongs to the job and stays with job.
3.Significance/ Advantages :
1) Art of getting best results (2) Lightens the burden of top executives (3) Top can concentrate on vital duties only (4) It enable quick decisions (5) It motivates the subordinate.(6)Develop the subordinates skills- 7) Avoid delay
8) Proper adjustment of policy to local conditions
9) Train subordinate with responsibility
10) Developing second line of leadership
11) Overcome complexity in procedures, that is delegation to specialists
4. Components of delegation: (1) Entrustment of operative responsibility (2) Granting of authority (3) Creation of an obligation or accountability.
a) Full and partial b) Conditional and unconditional c) Formal and informal d) Direct and Intermediate.
6. Principles of delegation:
a) Assignment of duties in terms of results expected
b) Parity of authority and responsibility: So much of authority to accomplish the task alone to be delegated.
c) Clarity on authority conferred
d) Absoluteness of responsibility
e) Unity of command-No double delegation
f) Authority level principle- no seeking clarification etc,.
7)Guidelines on delegation.
1) Specific and Written
2) To a position and not to individual
3) Competence of subordinates
4) Authority and responsibility
5) Proper planning
6) Usual chain of command and unity of command
7) Systematic reporting to be maintained
8)To be followed by performance appraisal system
9) Give them training
10) Give them incentives
8. Hindrances are Organizational Hindrances and personal hindrances.
(1)Lack of well established procedures and methods
(2) Unstable and non repetitive character of work
(3) Lack of effective means of internal communication
(4) Centralization requirements of certain special programmes
(5) Smaller and narrower geographic coverage of organization
(6) Lack of effective means of internal coordination
(7) Lack of well-defined positions in terms of responsibility and authority
(8) The lesser age of organization due to a few precedents
(9) The constitutional. Legal and political restrictions
(b) Personal Hindrances which are of two kinds
(i)lure for authority (ii) Lack of receptiveness- none else can do (iii) Fear of being exposed (d) Difficulty in briefing (v) Lack of Confidence over subordinates
(i)easy way to consult superior (ii) Fear of criticism 9iii) Lack of self confidence (iv) Absence of incentives (v) Excessive workload
9) Conclusion: Most failures in effective delegation occur not because executives do not understand the nature and principles of delegation but because they are unable or unwilling to apply them. Delegartion is, in a way an elementary act of managing or administering. Yet studies of administrative failures almost invariably find that poor or inept delegation is at or near the top of the list of causes.
Delegation is a process
Decentralisation is the end result of delegation.
It is essential for management process.
It is optional as top management may or may not disperse authority.
It denotes relationship between a superior and a subordinate.
It denotes relationship between top management and various semi-autonomous divisions.
The delegator exercises control over the subordinates.
The control may be delegated to departmental heads.
It is a technique of management.
It is a philosophy of management.
Compiled By S.Prabhakaran B.Sc M.L.
It is one of the important tasks of management. Since top executives cannot perform all overseeing of works, they entrust it to the other subordinates.Further workers also require guidance. It gives coherence to the organization. According to Millet it has two purposes –one is to achieve coordination among various and the second one is to ensure that each unit accomplishes its tasks. It has two terms “Super” and “Vision” which means, “overseeing”. In purely structural terms it may mean monitoring and controlling the subordinates but in modern management it mean a mix of activities such as teaching, guiding, cooperating, exploring and inspecting. The crude form of penalizing authority of the past is now replaced by participative and spiritual collaborator of subordinates. Taylor and Fayol have put emphasis on the role of supervisor.The most important quality of supervisor is his competency in interpersonal relations”
2. Activities- Superintendence, direction, control, guidance, inspection and coordination.
As per F.M. marx it has 3 phases or aspects .
(a) Substantive or technical- he must know techniques of work
(b) Institutional or objective know the policies and procedures according to which it should be done
(c) Personnel or human- handling of workers
4:Need for Supervision: (a) Relieves workload of top executive (b) Principle by which coordination can be achieved. (c) Method by which employees are trained and inspired to a high level of morale and performance (d) Basis is laid for controlling results e) It converts general plans and policies into worl plans and hence into units of production.
a) Single- Line- Police and Plural Line and Staff- O& M, Accountant etc,. b) Line and Functional c) Millet: Substantive (actual work) and Technical (Methods)
As per J.D. Millet following 6 techniques are to be followed.
1) Prior Approval of Individual Projects 2) Promulgation of Service standards 3. Budgetary limitation 4.Approval of subordinate Personnel
5. Reporting system on work progress.6.Inspection result
7. Supervisory skills:
(a) Technical skill (b) Human Skill (c) Conceptual skill (d) Diagnostic skill (e) political skill- ability to acquire power to do a thing.
8.Qualities and Functions According to G.D. Halsey it has six ingredients. According to H. Nissen there are 11 duties.Pfinner has listed 8 qualities
9 LIKERT’S SUPERVISORY STYLES: Likert’s Michigan Studies proved that more general the degree of supervision excercisable by a superior, higher the level of production. Conversely the closer the degree, lower was the output. Hence he classified supervisor into two (i) job centred and (2) employee centred and he preferred the second for results. To him the second one has 7 plus points and chacteristics.(i) Little pressure on subordinates (ii) Get trust and confidence of lower (iii) General supervision (iv)Allow subordinates to schedule their own path of work (v) Permit decision making by employees (vi) Not punitive (viii) Devote more attention to responsible jobs.
10) Michigan and Ohio Studies:
From 1947, the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan carried out a large scale programme of research into "the organisational structure and the principles of leadership and management which result in the best performance." The study concluded that managers can be and that the latter were more effective. Job centred management behaviour was close to what called scientific management - an emphasis on discovering the best way to do a job, hiring and training the right person, monitoring performance closely and rewarding on a piece rate basis. Employee centred behaviour concentrates upon the aspects of work, allowing people their own creativity, freedom to work the way they feel most comfortable and to become involved in their own goal setting. The Michigan studies' conclusions were further developed in the Ohio studies which showed that the two ends of the Michigan continuum were not opposites but relatively independent of each other. The distinction created many models of , all largely based upon these insights.The relative independence of the two factors - job centred and employee centred behaviour - led to the idea that varying degrees of each were effective, dependent upon the situation.
11 Qualities of Good supervisor: I) direct contact ii) Communicate iii) Inquisitive mind- Why do we do it in this way? Iv) care for public interest than personal interest v) Familiar with procedures vi) Confident
12: General: When the decisions have been communicated, it becomes the duty of the top administrators in the organizational hierarchy to see that they are implemented properly. To see to the fact that the ends of organization are being realized is the job of supervision and control in an administrative organization. The top administrators give directions to the subordinates, watch their activities and observe the results. Negatively, supervision is to direct inspect and investigate the activities of the personnel in the organization; positively, it has to tell them the best way of doing work and achieving the targets. Supervision is to achieve co-ordination among the various units of the organization and it has to see that each unit of the organization accomplishes the tasks assigned to it. The task of supervision is to hatch the results of organization. This task can be performed by laying down some objective tests and criterion of efficiency. Some times supervision is exercised through budgetary provisions. The employees have to submit a report of the progress of the work to the supervising authority. The supervisor can also inspect the records, papers, files and thus know the results. The supervisor lays down the targets, and then sees to it that the targets have been efficiently achieved.
In an organization, such environment may be created that every one puts his best in the work, and the result is maximum output. To achieve it, supervision is called upon to check the faults and to show the right lines for future action. The supervisor has not only to inspect and inquire, but has to encourage and inspire, and thus achieve teamwork.
There are three organizational units. Line agencies directly work for achievement of organizational purposes – Staff agencies advise and assist the line agencies in their activities – auxiliary agencies provide common house – keeping. Borrowed from Military Terminology.
(i) What is line: It is originated in the military. They are concerned with substantive functions of Govt.They are primary and central at any as well as larger organizations. The classical examples are given below
a) Government departments b) Public Corporations c) Government companies d) Independent Regulatory Commissions as in America.
(ii) Functions: These agencies perform the following major functions.
(a)Making decision b) Taking responsibility c) Planning d) Interpreting and defending policy e) Maintaining production and seeking efficiency and economy.
(iii) Salient Features of Line: Primary function, Authority flows from vertical to downwards, direct chain of command, unity of command, takes decisions and issue commands, delegation. Sometimes called “Direct Operative authority”.
3. Staff Agencies.
Literally it means a stick on which we can lean for support but it cannot take or initiate any decision. So it is only supportive of main line function. They advise and help the Line functions for more efficient results. But staff officers don’t have any command over the functions.
(b)Functions: (i) Budgeting and accounting (ii) personnel (iii) Planning (iv) research, reporting and public relations (v) Legal services (vi) Other management procedures. Mooney has identified three aspects; White has recognized 6 functions and Pfinner 7 functions.
c) Hence its characteristics are-(1) Assistance-(ii_ Information (iii)Advisory- Planning Commission (iv) Supervisory- Cabinet Secretariat (v) Delegated functions- PMO press release.
(d) Types : There are three kinds.
1) General Staff or filter and funnel –PMO or White House – administrators and not technical
2) Technical staff- economic or financial or foreign affair advisor
3) Auxiliary staff. Willoughby called them as Institutional or housekeeping services.
.4. Auxiliary Agencies They were termed as Establishment Services by British writers.
1) Central Public works Department2b) Law Ministry 3) Finance Ministry 4) Information and Broadcasting Ministry 5) Union Public Service Commission 6) Parliamentary Affairs department 7) Director – General of supply and Disposal.
5: Line and Staff: Eleven main differences in (1) Role-decision-advice (2) direct contribution (3) doing function (4) flow of authority downward (5) Operating decision (6) Functional-institutional (7) ends- means for ends (8) substantive- supportive (9) control-report (10) Bears final responsibility (11) Provide channel of communication
6) Staff and Auxiliary: Four differences- (i) advise-housekeeping, (ii) no authority but limited, (iii) no executive function auxiliary have operational responsibility, (iv) attached to line at every levels - under chief executive- but not bothered with the improvement of organisation.
7) Staff Agencies in various countries:
India: PMO. Cabinet Secretariat, Cabinet Committees, Planning Commission, UPSC, SSC, CBI
Britain: Cabinet Secretariat, Cabinet Committees, Treasury, Civil Service Department, Central Police Review Staff
USA: White House Office, EOP, National Security Council, office of Management and Function.
8. Conflict between Staff and Line
i) Line dislikes staff for the fear of being taken for a ride (ii) Staff controls office technology including fax, computer (iii) Staff controls information (iv) Line is not for change but staff act as catalyst for change.
9) Power of the systems under Presidential and Cabinet systems:
a) Staff is more powerful as Chief Executive has wider control and powers under seperation of Powers. Hence, OBM, White House and offices in the EOP are powerful than the staff agencies under the Cabinet system.
b) Chief Executive does not require the approval of Cabinet for supporting the staff agency. But in Cabinet PM has to keep his Ministers together to support the staff.
10) Illusory today: Logan: Difference at the start but not after growth.
(2) Peter Drucker: It is destructive distinction, as head of staff may become Empire Builders, as they have no authority and responsibility.
3) Mooney and Reiley_ it is a term applicable in formal Organisations only.
4) New lifeline of office management system initiated a process towards decline of hierarchical, pyramidical and Weberian organizations.